SANTOS HOLDING IS A GLOBAL 3PL PROVIDER

OIL TERMINAL PORT

An oil terminal is an industrial facility for the storage of oil, petroleum and petrochemical products, and from which these products are transported to end users or other storage facilities. An oil terminal typically has a variety of above or below ground tankage; facilities for inter-tank transfer; pumping facilities; loading gantries for filling road tankers or barges; ship loading/unloading equipment at marine terminals; and pipeline connections .

LOCATION

Oil terminals may be located close to, or be part of, oil refineries; or be located in coastal locations where marine tankers can discharge or load cargo.

Some terminals are connected to pipelines from which they draw or discharge their products. Terminals can also be served by rail, barge and road tanker. Oil terminals are also located near cities from which road tankers transport products to petrol stations or other domestic, commercial or industrial users.

Oil terminals may be located close to, or be part of, oil refineries; or be located in coastal locations where marine tankers can discharge or load cargo.

Some terminals are connected to pipelines from which they draw or discharge their products. Terminals can also be served by rail, barge and road tanker. Oil terminals are also located near cities from which road tankers transport products to petrol stations or other domestic, commercial or industrial users.

Facilities

In most oil terminals there is no processing or other product transformation on site. The products from a refinery which are stored in the terminal are in their final form suitable for delivery to customers. Blending of products may be undertaken, and additives may be injected into products, but there is usually no manufacturing plant on site. Modern terminals have a high degree of site automation. Marine oil terminals have jetties to provide a deep water mooring for tankers. Jetties have loading/unloading arms for transferring cargo to/from ship to shore. Facilities for vapor recovery may be provided .

Some oil terminals receive crude oil production from offshore installations. Crude oil received by pipeline may have been ‘spiked’ with natural gas liquids (NGL), and is known as live crude.Such oil needs to be processed or stabilised to remove the lighter fractions such as ethane, propane and butane to produce a dead or stabilised crude that is suitable for storage and transport. The process facilities include oil heaters to warm the oil which then routed to separator vessels.In the separators the lighter fractions flash off from the oil and are further processed to separate them into their individual components. The now stabilised oil can be routed to storage and then sold or sent for further processing.

Standards

The design, construction, operation and maintenance of an oil terminal must be in accordance with local, national, regional and international codes, standards, and legal and statutory requirements .

Health, safety and environment

Maintaining Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) requires operators of a depot to ensure that products are safely stored and handled. There must be no leakages (etc.) which could damage the soil or the water table.] Fire protection is a primary consideration, especially for the more flammable products such as petrol (gasoline) and Jet A1 aviation fuel.

Incidents

The Buncefield incident occurred in December 2005. A petrol tank overflowed and spilt petrol down the outside of the tank which created a flammable fuel air mixture.This exploded and damaged and set fire to adjoining tanks and burnt for several days destroying much of the terminal .

Shipping

As a leading company in the field of oil and gas, Santos Holding can provide the best services for delivery of goods to buyers in all oil ports of the world. Safe delivery at a port is part of the contract process between Santos holding and buyers ,Santoz Holding, using the most experienced port specialists in oil ports in different countries of the world, performs safe and fast transportation with the best service for its buyers .